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Gurbani Raag Tukhari


Tukhari was probably based on a folk tune and was very likely developed by Guru Nanak into a raga for the singing certain sabdas. No raga of this name appears in the classifications of the period when sabdas were being composed and the Holy Book compiled. A raga called Mukhari may be found in the classifications of Karnataka (South Indian) ragas during the period from the 15th to the 18th centuries. Tukhari was used by Guru Nanak, Guru Ram Das and Guru Arjan. Guru Nanak's composition Bara Maha is set to this Raga. It appears to be a raga for the morning hours to be sung in winter. Its name Tukhari is the popular forth of tushar (Sanskrit for winter frost). No melodic material for the Tukhari is available but, for the sake of comparison, the scale of ,Mukhari is given:

Aroh : Ni Sa, Ga Ma Pa, Ni Sa

Avroh : Sa Ni Dha Pa, Ni Dha Pa, M'a Ga. Re Sa

Pakar : Ni N Dha Pa, Ma Pa, NIa Ga, Re

Vadi : Pa

Samvadi Sa

Introduction :

This raga was very popular about hundred years ago. In addition to Gurubani it was also sung for other types of compositions. Guru Nanak used this raga to compose his 'Baramah'. According to a few authors this raga is same as raga Madhvanti, but it is not true, Tukhari is a distinctive raga in its own right. Bhai Kahn Singh Nabha, however, classifies it as a ragini.

This raga is not mentioned in the Ragamala listed at the end of Guru Granth Sahib.

The scale and notes of the raga are as follows:

Arohi (ascending scale) - ni sa, ga re sa, ga ma pa ma pa ma pa, pa dha ni dha pa ma pa, sa na sa

Avrohi (descending scale) - sa ni sa ni sa, ni dha pa, pa ma pa ma pa, ma ga re sa, re m sa

The vadi (most popular) note is 'pa' and samvadi (second most popular) note is ' sa'.

This raga is sung in the first part of the day i.e., from 6 a.m. to 9 a.m. The season of its recitation is winter (sharad) i.e., during October, November. In Guru Granth Sahib it has hymns from pages 1107 - 1117 ( 11pages).

The Composers:

The composers of bani (hymns) in this raga are:

Gurus

  • Guru Nanak Dev
  • Ramdas
  • Guru Arjan Dev

Bhagats:

There is no Bhagat bani in this raga

The structure:

The sequence of the structure of compositions in this raga are:

Gurubani:

  • Chhants (including specialist chhants)

Bhagatbani:

  • None

Matrix

VISUAL ANALYSIS

Count of the use of Managals:

  • Complete Mool Mantar = none
  • Ik-ongkar Satgur Prasadh = 3

Placement and count of rahau verses:

None of the compositions (as all are chhants) have any rahau verse/s in them.

Diversification of headings & subheadings in this raga:

Page number

Heading/Subheading

1107

Tukhari Chhant Mehla 1 Baramah

1113

Tukhari Chhant Mehla 4


Composers Structure of Bani

 

Padas

 

 

 

 

Chhts

Gurus

2

3

4

5

6

 

Nanak Del

 

 

 

 

 

6 Chhants:

1st Chhant is titled 'Baramah and has 17 padas

2nd Chhant is titled 'Pehre and has 5 padas

3rd - 5 Chhant have 4 padas

6th Chhant has 5 padas

Ramdas

 

 

 

 

 

4 Chhants; 1st - 3rd = 4 padas

4th =6 padas

Arjan

Dev

 

 

 

 

 

1 Chhant = 4 padas

Excerpts taken from:
Guru Granth Sahib: An Advance Study
Dr Sukhbir Singh Kapoor
Vice Chancellor World Sikh University, London

 



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