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Gurbani Raag Devgandhari


Today Devagandhari is a rare, little known, ancient raga. Its performance time is the morning hours. Historically it has had three forms; the less ornamented type is described here. In the Ragmala, Devagandhari is a ragini of Malkauhsa. Today it belongs to the Asavari thata. Its mood is one of prayerful supplication presenting a heroic effect. The texts set to this raga reveal a heroic search for these qualities which lead one to the Lord. This raga was used primarily by Guru Arjan. Forty-Seven hymns were composed to it including three by Guru Teg_h Bahadur and six by Guru Ram Das.

Aroh : Sa Re Nfa Pa Dha Sa

Avroh : Sa Ni Dha Pa, Ma Pa, Dha Ni Dha Pa, Nfa Ga Re Sa

Pakar : Dha Ni Dha Pa, Ma Ga, Sa Re Ma, Ga Sa Re Ga Sa

Vadi : Ma

Samvadi : Sa

Introduction :

Raga Devghandhari is one of the oldest raga of the Indian School of Music. According to one one belief it is made up of ragas Asawari, Bhairo and Devgiri. In the Ragamala listed at the end of Guru Granth Sahib it is classified as a consort of raga Malkausak. In the Kali Nath School of music it is listed as a consort of Sri raga, whereas in the Nad Binod's school it is titled as 'Dev Ghandar' and is classified as a son of raga Bhairo. According to Bhai Kahn Singh it is a consort of raga Bilawal.

The scale and notes of the raga are as follows:

Arohi (ascending scale) - sa re ma pa dha sa (omitted notes are -ga, ni)
Avrohi (descending scale) - sa ni dha ma ga re sa
The vadi (most popular) note is 'sa' and samvadi (second most popular) note is 'pa'.

This raga is sung at the first part of the day i.e., from 6 a.m to 9 a.m. The season of its recitation is winter (shisher) i.e., during December and January. In Guru Granth Sahib it has hymns from pages 527 - 536 (9 pages).

The Composers:

The composers of bani (hymns) in this raga are:

Gurus

  • Guru Ramdas
  • Guru Arjan Dev
  • Guru Tegh Bahadur

Bhagats:

There is no Bhagat bath in this raga.

The Structure:

The sequence of the structure of compositions in this raga are:

Gurubani:

1. Shabads ( 2 and 4 padas)

Matrix

VISUAL ANALYSIS

Count of the use of Managals:

Complete Mool Mantar = 1 at page 527
Ik-ongkar Satgur Prasadh = 8

Placement and count of the rahau verses:

All shabads have rahau verses in them placed in the beginning of the shabads.

Analysis of diversified headings & sub-headings used in this raga:

Page number

Heading/Subheading

527

Raga Devgandhari Mehla 4 Ghar 1

528

Devgandhari Mehla 5 Ghar 2

529

Devghandhari

530

Devgandhari 5

Composers Structure of Bani

 

Padas

 

 

 

 

Ashtpadis

Specialist

 

Chts

Specialist

Var

Sloaks*

Gurus

2

3

4

5

6

8 (paylas)

untiled

Titled

 

 

 

 

Ramdas

6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Arjan Dev

36

 

1+1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tegh

Bahadur

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Excerpts taken from:
Guru Granth Sahib: An Advance Study
Dr Sukhbir Singh Kapoor
Vice Chancellor World Sikh University, London

 



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