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Gurbani Raag Malar


MALAR (MALLAR or MALHAR) Malar is one of the rainy-season ragas performed from June to September. During the monsoons, Malar can be sung at any time of the day or night; otherwise, it is designated for late evening or early morning. Its mood is joyful because the rains cause the crops to grow and the flowers to bloom. Malar is frequently combined with other ragas, particularly Megha. Tansen added some changes to Malhar and this raga is known as Mian ki Malhar. In the Ragmala, Gaund-Malar is described as a ragini of Megha and is the only one with a Malhar name. Today the Malhar ragas are assigned to the Kafi thata. A favourite of Hindu musicians, Malhar was used by Guru Nanak, Guru Angad, Guru Amar Das, Guru Ram Das, and Guru Arjan. The pure Malhar is seldom performed today, and it might be heard in one of its combinations.

Aroh : Sa, Re Ga Ma, Ma Re Pa, Ni Dha Ni Sa

Avroh : Sa, Dha Ni Pa, 'via Ga Ma, Re Sa

Pakar : Sa Re Ga Ma, Ma Re Pa, Dha Ni Pa, Ma Re Sa

Vadi: Ma

Samvadi: Sa

Introduction :

It is a very serene raga. It helps to create a congenial atmosphere and spreads the fragrance of love, unity and divinity

This raga is mentioned as first ragini of of raga Meg in the Ragamala listed at the end of Guru Granth Sahib.

The scale and notes of the raga are as follows:

Arohi (ascending scale) - sa re ga ma, ma re pa, ni dha ni sa

Avrohi (descending scale) - sa, dha ni pa, ma ga ma, re sa ma re sa

The vadi (most popular) note is 'ma' and samvadi (second most popular) note is 'sa'.

This raga is sung in the third part of the night i.e., 12 a.m. 3 a.m. The season of its recitation is rainy (varsha) i.e., during July - August. In Guru Granth Sahib it has hymns from pages 1254 - 1293 ( 40 pages).

The Composers:

The composers of bani (hymns) in this raga are:

Gurus

  • Guru Nanak Dev
  • Guru Angad
  • Guru Amardas
  • Ramdas
  • Guru Allan Dev

Bhagats:

  • Namdev
  • Ravidas

The structure:

The sequence of the structure of compositions in this raga are:

Gurubani:

  • Shabads (2 - 5padas)
  • Ashtpadis
  • Chhant'
  • Var

Bhagatbani:

  • Shabads (3, 5 padas)

Matrix

VISUAL ANALYSIS

Count of the use of Managals:

  • Complete Mool Mantar = 1 at page 1254
  • Ik-ongkar Satgur Prasadh = 18

Placement and count of rahau verses:

First 35 shabads have one rahau verse, numbered and placed at the end of the first padas of the shabads; in the next 18 shabads, the placing of the rahau verses is in the beginning of the shabads; in the next 4 shabads the placing is again at the end of the first padas of the shabads, in the last 8 shabads the placing is again shifted at the start of the shabads.

In the ashtpadis, the rahau verses are placed at the end of the first padas, and all verses have numeral 1 with them.

In the Bhagat Bath the rahau verses have numerals, except the last shabad, and are placed in the beginning of the shabads.

Diversification of headings & subheadings in this raga:

Page number

Heading/Subheading

1254

Raga Malar Chaupadas Mehla 1 Ghar 1

1257

Malar Mehla 3 chaupads Ghar 1

1262

Raga Malar Mehla 4 Ghar 1 chaupadas

Composers Structure of Bani

 

Padas

 

 

 

 

Specialist

Ashtpadis

Specialist

Chts

Sohle**

Var

Sloaks*

Gurus

2

3

4

5

6

Titled

8 (padas)

 

 

 

 

 

Nanak

Dev

 

 

8

1

 

 

5

 

 

 

27

pauris

24

Angad

Dev

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

Amardas

 

 

10

3

 

 

3

 

 

 

 

27

Ramdas

1

 

7

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Arjan Dev

21

2

7

 

 

 

 

 

1

1 pauri

in var

M:1

 

2

Bhagats

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Namdev

 

1

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ravidas

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Excerpts taken from:
Guru Granth Sahib: An Advance Study
Dr Sukhbir Singh Kapoor
Vice Chancellor World Sikh University, London

 



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